Manufacturing Molybdenum-99 for medicine at TUM’s Research Neutron Source

One cannot conceive of modern medicine without technetium-99m It is ideally suited to making diseases visible, be it in the heart, the thyroid or the bones, and, moreover, minimising patient radiation exposure

It is used around 3 million times per year in Germany, and some 30 million times worldwide However, fewer and fewer nuclear reactors are available for its production, leading to the risk of shortage A new plant to produce isotopes is going to be established at the Research Neutron Source FRM II of the Technical University of Munich here in Garching Dr Heiko Gerstenberg is responsible for the irradiation facilities at the FRM II

“It was already clear since the design phase of FRM II, to use the reactor not only for basic research, but also for technical and medical applications Since there is a permanent shortage with the isotope technetium-99m in nuclear medicine, it seems important to us, to provide a considerable contribution for the supply with this isotope” At the moment, engineers and technicians are working on a 1:1 scale model in this hall The construction reaches a height of two and a half meters Philipp Jüttner is the engineer responsible for running the tests of the facility, supported by the technician Georg Haas

Slim fuel plates covered by an aluminum alloy are used in the facility These targets hold 4 grams of uranium, the source material for the production of technetium-99m At the moment, the two are still working with nuclear fuel free test plates “This is a dummy of a target, that will be irradiated in our facility and this is the holder for the targets, which is built so that we can place eight targets together into our facility to irradiate them” The holder with its eight targets is placed in a tubular container

Georg Haas currently handles this, but later on this task will be carried out remotely The future irradiation position in the facility of the FRM II is difficult to reach This is the main reason behind the construction A grappler pulls the holder with the uranium-targets out of the container and moves it to a tube extending five meters deep into the reactor pool “A big challenge for the construction of this facility was to place the irradiation position as close as possible to the fuel element to get as many neutrons as possible at the targets

” And there is another specialty: Philipp Jüttner chose gear rods for the insertion of the targets The elements form a five-meter pole to push the targets down the long tube And the gear rods can be folded up to save space “I invented the gear rod assembly because the cooling water in our cooling channels is coming bottom up and the target holders are brought down If there was no stiff rod the target holder would be blown out of the cooling channel

” The gear rod assembly is made of 23 singular elements “Now we bring down the target holder to the fuel element, where the targets will be irradiated with neutrons In this process we get molybdenum-99 which is the reason why we built this whole facility” For six days the uranium targets are irradiated with neutrons, so that molybdenum-99 – in short “Mo-99” – is formed Finally, the plates are transported to laboratories which chemically separate the resulting Mo-99 from the remaining material

Then it goes on to producers, who, with the aid of the gained isotopes, manufacture generators for use in medicine Mo-99 decays with a half-life of only 66 hours to technetium-99m, the important radionuclide for the diagnosis of many diseases Due to the short half-life of Mo99, as well as of Tc-99m, the generators must be delivered immediately to clinics and practices where technetium-99m is used for patients Here in Garching the installation is still in progress In addition to the development of the technical facility, a nuclear licensing procedure is under way

The engineer Mira Giourges is in close contact with the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and TÜV Bayern “Our aim is to get an approval for installation and operation of the irradiation facility That is why we submitted many documents to the nuclear experts Based on these submitted documents the experts form an opinion, which builds the basis for our approval” Meanwhile, in the test hall the irradiation system is placed in a large tank and flooded

In the research neutron source it will be operated in the reactor pool under five meters of water, which is why Philipp Jüttner and Georg Haas are testing the construction under water “We want to make sure that the facility works properly And if, for example, something is leaking, we will see the bubbles best under water” Dr Heiko Gerstenberg will be responsible for the operation of this irradiation facility in the future

It is important that the system works perfectly and can be installed into the tank of FRM II without a hitch “One of the big advantages of this mockup is that we can check everything already here That will help us to reduce the outage time of the neutron source during the installation phase of the facility within the pool of FRM II” Ideally the test irradiations are scheduled for 2018 The start of routine production is foreseen for 2019 at the earliest


‘Seeing is Believing’ 5k run raises money for medical research





Proteogenomics Research: On the Frontier of Precision Medicine

Proteogenomics Reasearch: On the Frontier of Precision Medicine The fields that we currently consider next generation molecular medicine, including Genomics, Proteomics, miRNAomics, Microbiomics, and Epigenomics all share the same foundation This foundation rests in "omics", which is an informal term used to describe the comprehensive study of the biological components of a cell at the molecular level

Take Genomics, for example Genomics is the comprehensive study of the complete set of genes, or DNA, in an organism, which we refer to as the genome Analyzing the genome of a patient's cancer can reveal information about how to best detect, diagnose, and treat the patient For example, a patient's cancer may have a DNA mutation that makes it especially sensitive to a drug Although studying a patient's DNA can provide a lot of information, it doesn't give us the whole picture

The reason is that, in addition to DNA, there are many other molecules that contribute to cancer biology, such as proteins Proteomics is the comprehensive study of the complete set of proteins in an organism which we refer to as the proteome Proteins are built from DNA You might say that DNA is the blueprint for life, and proteins are the tools that make living systems work They play a major role in the daily functions of both healthy cells and cancer cells

Analyzing a patient's cancer proteome can also provide information about how to best diagnose and treat the patient This is because proteins carry out almost all of the functions within our cells If a protein is altered a cell could begin to multiply uncontrollably, potentially leading to cancer This is why almost every clinical cancer treatment targets a protein Understanding how proteins influence cancer biology is critical to developing better diagnosis and treatment strategies, as they can add clarity to how a patient will respond to a particular treatment

In the past researchers often studied patients' cancer genomes or proteomes separately But in 2016, three research teams combined the comprehensive analysis of patients' cancer genomes and proteomes This integrated approach of Proteomics and Genomics is called Proteogenomics These studies showed that, separately, genomics and proteomics provide a partial picture of cancer biology, but studying them together produced a more complete unified picture Researchers are hopeful that proteogenomics may improve our ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer at the molecular level

Proteogenomics Research: On the Frontier of Precision Medicine


Ohio State’s Research to help Rotator Cuff Issues | Ohio State Sports Medicine

We're involved in one of the largest research studies ever done in orthopedic surgery And what we are looking at is ways to treat problems of the rotator cuff

Rotator cuff issues are the most common reason people get pain in their shoulder, and the more we understand them, the better we can help people who have this condition We're looking at how and when we should do surgery versus when people can get better with things like physical therapy


The Future of Medicine

We know there are about thirty thousand diseases known to human beings and of those about three-quarters have no treatment whatsoever You have an ageing population worldwide, there are a lot more chronic disorders coming through and these patients need new treatments which are offered on a continuous basis

We see a very big change in therapeutics coming up and we're on the cusp of that change now where you're getting multiple disciplines in brand new technologies and much more understanding the biological science behind it and the net result of all of that is it should introduce new therapeutic modes into the general public So there's a revolution going on in medicine that we want personalized health care, we want to understand our own bodies, the individual nature of those and for that we need sensors but not just on the outside we need sensors on the inside And we've not been very good at making those so nanoscience and nanotechnology is driving towards making new sorts of devices that will really revolutionise medicine This is the idea of personalised medicine as a whole: how do we actually know how we're working as a human? When you go to a doctor they always ask you how are you feeling and part of the reason is they have no machine which can measure how you're feeling So it's about how do we create technologies that actually can read that out and do something much more profound, actually watch how you're living and then start to warn when maybe something is going wrong

Now on the very, very future scale what we actually really want to do is to put nano machines inside our bodies We want them to go and scavenge away and repair parts which are broken, remove clots and all at the moment this is rather large scale interventions that surgeons have to push something in your body What we'd really like to do is to use what the body does and so nanotechnology's learning how to build these sort of nano machines Humans are living longer and longer and of course we've dramatically changed life expectancy over just the last hundred years or so with the introduction of antibiotics and so our tissues, the quality of our tissues decreases with time and that means as we live older and older we're gonna need more and more replacement parts not necessarily just to stay alive but for our quality of life as well So we study natural materials because if we want to make artificial materials that are similar to the natural materials we have to understand the natural materials themselves first

Scaffolds are used for tissue engineering when we make an artificial tissue Tissues have two components – they have cells and the material, the extracellular matrix So our scaffolds mimic the material parts and then if you add cells to that then you can engineer a new tissue Other organisms have enormous powers to regenerate They can regenerate limbs that are lost or hearts that are damaged

Humans – we don't have that ability When somebody has a heart attack part of their heart muscle dies They can lose a billion cardiomyocytes and the heart never repairs that, it's just replaced by scar What we'd like to do is develop a tissue engineered cardiac patch made out of stem cells that can replace and restore normal function to the heart What we're using is embryonic stem cells that can form heart muscle and all the other structures of the heart and what we want to do is to improve the heart function not just by a couple of percent but completely back to normal

I mean the future is actually very bright for regenerative medicine as a whole because other people are working on other organs So kidneys, livers, repairing damaged brain – even spinal cords So there's a huge area of promise here I think that that's what the future holds looking far ahead Immunotherapy is really revolutionising the way in which cancers can be treated My lab is interested in understanding what makes a really good killer cell

These are the cells that recognize and destroy both the cancer and virally infected cells in your body So as effective and revolutionary as immunotherapy has been, it doesn't cure all patients and so it becomes incredibly important to understand in detail what tells a killer cell to kill and how it does so So what my research is aimed at is understanding what makes a really good killer and what are the mechanisms that control that killing One of the approaches we use is to study cells in patients with genetic diseases where the killer cells don't work to try and understand why things don't work when one components missing Another approach that we use is to look at the genes that need to be expressed to train a cell to be a really good killer and finally we use a lot of high resolution imaging on live cells to see what happens to make the killing effective

What we really need is a big enough bag of tricks to understand in detail the mechanisms that control the killer T cells so that every time a cancer cell comes up with its new strategy to try and avoid the immune system, that we have a trick up our sleeve to deal with that I head up a team that's a new team really working and focusing on a new type of technology really on a new breakthrough called CRISPR or genome editing This is a new technology that allows us to essentially rewrite the DNA that's within all of our cells, correcting mistakes in that DNA So the field has really exploded over the last few years and we're really able to do more now than we've ever been able to do in the entirety of history Now CRISPR is essentially the exploitation of an antiviral defense system that exists in all sorts of different species of bacteria and scientists have taken that and taken components of that to be able to rewrite DNA in all manner of cells and all manner of organisms

Gene editing is really essentially a two-part system there is a GPS location and there is a pair of molecular scissors The GPS locator directs the molecular scissors to a specific part of the DNA to be able to make its cut and at that point there, the cut, the removal and the replacement of the DNA can occur What we hope to be able to do is once we've corrected the cells in the petri dish, is to be able to put them back into the patient Now what that will do is, it will not be a therapeutic against a particular disease or it will alleviate the disease – that could potentially be a complete cure for that disease, for that individual What this technology also does is that it allows us to look down within a cell and to tinker and really understand what's going on, how cells work at the most fundamental of levels and that allows us to do all sorts of things

That allows us to turn a cell into a computer for example, to record information into a cell, to program cells to do specific things Very soon in the near future we'll see some diseases being completely cured, simple diseases being cured by CRISPR technology or genome editing technology with more and more complex diseases being tackled over the next few years So we're working with regulators and with clinicians to ensure patient safety is paramount Clearly the field of therapeutics offers many exciting new treatments, the prospects of all sorts of amazing discoveries but it's important to remember that these benefits are not free from risk or controversy Topping most people's lists of issues to be concerned with is the prospect of designing some sort of post human race

So to avoid the metaphorical shipwreck it is really important that we bring together people who are expert in all aspects of technology and society including law and ethics to identify and evaluate the various risks, benefits, themes and trends So I think in 50 years that we really will be able to manipulate these cells with exquisite specificity and I think being able to control what is a fabulous and effective little cell within our body to help the immune system when it needs to be helped or when it begins to go rogue, we'll be able to do that in 50 years Gene editing itself is so versatile it feels a bit like sometimes the sky is the limit I could see a situation where in twenty, twenty five years in the future, that people could be engineering synthetic cells that go inside people and survey around their body looking for disease and dealing with disease as it arises Right now if something goes wrong you might need a donor in order to get a replacement part but in 50 years we might just be able to walk into a room and have there be shelves full of donor parts for all different tissues in the body because of tissue engineering

What my vision is, is that people who have heart attacks, who have damaged hearts, we'll be able to provide a patch through a cardiac surgeon as you go for a bypass now you'd go from bypass and maybe a heart patch as well and we'll be able to restore those hearts back to normal which means that people who currently aren't able to do simple things like walking up stairs or having a normal life can get back to doing just normal things that you and I take for granted and having a normal lifespan as well In terms of the future and I'm aiming the longer term future now, I see a very large change in the way the healthcare delivered so you have new therapeutic regimes which may be done for example in the home environment and maybe the diagnostics will be done there and even eventually the treatments in the home and very much angled against the individual, so it's personalized in the home environment or if it's a more serious disorder, a longer term disorder, that may be that will be conducted in a hospital environment but because of the therapeutics can be delivered by the patient with the patient's own materials it's probably going to change the way hospitals are established, the way the companies interact because they'll have a product which actually comes to the patient side or the bedside and very different geometry from the way it's done right now And if you can get to that stage you can of course save masses of money in the final healthcare treatment regime I think the most exciting thing from my point of view is the fact that you're bringing into into therapeutics and treatments of patients a whole range of technologies It's called convergence in the technical jargon but you're bringing them all together to create a totally new treatment regime and that's right the way from how you handle the patient to actually delivering the final therapeutic product and that's the exciting thing I think


Elite: Dangerous INRA Mycoid base 6 Velasquez Medical Research Centre

hello this is Ricardo and welcome to elite dangerous I'm in lp 3 eight nine – nine five system on approaches lovely blue planet it's a nice difference to see a nice blue planet planet seven in system and the coordinates will be on the screen soon and I'm pursuing per six of the inner base and microwave virus development mystery that's been unraveling over the past couple of days I've put the location of the system and the planet in the picture and picture on the screen to save you roaming around the system looking for it yourself there are going to be logs involved like with my other episodes in this series so there is going to be a spoiler alert if you haven't already done so please can I ask you to click the subscribe and the like button if you haven't already done so so that you can see more videos of this ilk that I'm putting on YouTube so we're gonna play the music we're gonna sit back and we're going to enjoy the vellus cares Medical Research Center where they've developed a vaccine for the micro virus speak to you soon spoiler alert spoiler alert exactly some corporate bigwigs but they definitely convinced the board I can't say I'm surprised they offered a lot of money for access to our laughs apparently the board probably didn't even ask you what they wanted it for I believe I got the bosses to promise the lab wouldn't be used to make biological weapon medical facility after all corporation gave us their money it turns out they want us to make some kind of vaccine an antidote for an unnamed biological weapon they've given us samples and data but whatever we press for information silence we're working in the dark with our hands tied behind our backs and tricycle traps have got everything's neat but I have no idea what half it comes from they give this material the weapons been tested on both organic and inorganic we finally been given access to a sample of the weapon and it's opened up all kinds of avenues I still worry about the ease with which your benefactors acquired the sample but I'm probably just being paranoid they obviously have big pocket having access to unlimited funds left open all kinds of doors after months of research the solution ended up being pretty simple once you break it down it's a fairly straightforward organic compound little more than a fungus really we tested a vaccine on some of the older samples well it doesn't undo any 50 damage it does prevent the weapon from doing any further harm our sponsors certainly seem happy the lab is being dismantled see was our sponsors want to move us to a new location but their representatives appeared a few days ago demanded that all data be transferred to their servers and all samples be put into storage ready to be moved why are they doing this the lab organ meets our needs they made sure of it I tried to talk to them but I just got stonewalled apparently all information is on a need-to-know basis and I don't need to know you


Moody Foundation Gives Generous Gift To Support Transformative Medical Research

We're thrilled to announce that one of the largest foundations in the entire state of Texas has chosen to stand alongside Children's Health and our mission to make life better for children by providing fuel for the scientists here who are discovering the new treatments and therapies that will benefit children across North Texas and far beyond for generations to come The Moody Foundation’s mission is to be for the perpetual benefit of present and future Texans

And their mission and that with CRI (Children's Research Institute) couldn’t align better, because what could you do more than help children get better For Children’s Research Institute to have a transformative impact, there is really two components we need to do First, we have to be able to identify and recruit the top young scientists in the country Second of all, we have to create a culture of discovery within the Institute Where we want everyone swinging for the fences

And to do that, we need to be able to provide the kind of support within the institute When somebody has a potentially transformative idea, we have to be able to allow them to run with it And the gift from the Moody Foundation will help us to do that I think the Moody Foundation has always invested in children and in the future of Texas This is another venture for them to feel like they're part of something that is grand and wonderful that can happen for children

You know we’ve been close to the Moody Foundation for a long time The trustees there have generously invested in the work of Children’s Health for many years This takes that investment to an entirely new level This is a game-changing investment in what the future of pediatric medicine will look like not only for children here in North Texas, but for kids around the world


Medicine and Health – Postgraduate Research | University of East Anglia (UEA)

The Medicine and Health Sciences faculty covers a wide range of disciplines in research, from clinical medicine to bench science and social science research The university has really good facilities, there are great labs and office space as well as really strong connections with local health care providers

All students have at least two supervisors and they're also supported through a training programme which enables them to develop from novice researchers through to confident practitioners who are able to lead them develop their own research The main way UEA has supported me as a PhD student is in the variety of comprehensive courses and modules available to me which have really helped develop my skill-set As a public health doctor, I've been supported throughout the whole journey of my my PhD, from designer to obtaining and grant funding to do my PhD and then through to completing the research The diversity of the international community at UEA provides very enriching experience in the sense that you get to meet people from different cultures that all have a passion for science Two things attracted me to study at UEA – firstly the extensive research environment which provided the opportunity for me to collaborate and meet with people from different research areas, the second thing was Norwich itself, it offers a great sense of community but at the same time it is a calm and peaceful living environment

What's distinctive about studying here is that we have a very rich postgrad research student body both in terms of professional background, different educational preparation and different cultural mix and that leads to a really good diverse student body and a global community


The All of Us Anthem

We are one nation, one people When called upon to give from within, we come together and find that our capacity to help others is limitless

Here, we are fearless What lies inside all of us is more than data It’s life It’s more than insight and medical research, it’s vision and honor and compassion What's flowing through America’s veins is its’ diversity

The next great breakthrough will be found in each and every one us And what we find there will unlock mysteries, heal the sick and eradicate disease We ask for one million individuals to come forward and stand on this landmark in history We ask America to do, once again, what she has always done: lead the way forward We're one nation

One people But all of us are different, and it’s those very differences that will lead to answers for generations to come


Study Health & Medicine at the University of Tasmania

Our professor Dr Dargaville helped create the oxygen baby breather and you can work with him on his next breathtaking project Dr Johnston developed an app to manage hay fever

What will you contribute to health and medicine? Our Menzies facility is a world leader in MS research and you can help them push the boundaries At the University of Tasmania opportunities like this are at your fingertips Open yourself to a new state of mind